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Language Matters : Beside / Besides

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    the form and meaning/use of the words beside and besides in
    the following examples, which all come from the 
    Collins Cobuild Concordancer (no longer available on the web).

    a) .... It is now in the Science
    Centre, beside the world famous 76m Lovell Radio Telescope.

    b) .... barbiturates present
    additional risks. Beside the usual risks of injecting (abscesses and so on) ..

    c) .... (it's quite nice, actually,
    but that's beside the point).

    d) .... I was beside myself with
    rage when I heard this.

    e) .... Staley's heroin odyssey and
    a whole lot more besides.

    f) .... political or social
    injustice. Besides, Africa was rich in ...

    g) .... Besides producing a large
    quantity of concert music, ....


    2.  Comment
    on the potential features of connected speech in (e) above


    Now compare
    your own analysis with the suggested answer below.


    Suggested Answers


    1. Form, Meaning and Use


    a) Form - preposition.
      Meaning - next to 
     Use - used
    as head of a prepositional phrase to indicate location

    b) Form - preposition.    Meaning - as well as    Use - used
    as head of a prepositional phrase to indicate the relationship of addition

    c) Form – preposition.    Meaning - irrelevant to    Use -  used as
    head of a prepositional phrase forming a idiomatic expression / fixed lexical chunk .

    d) Form – preposition. 
    when used as head of prepositional phrase together with
    a reflexive pronoun (as here) has the meaning of "with no self control"

    e) Form - adverb. 
       Use - equivalent to
    prepositional phrase "besides Staley's heroin odyssey"

    f) Form - adverb.   Meaning- Furthermore 
     indicates a relationship of addition between the two

    Form – 
    preposition.     Meaning : as well as 
      Use - indicates a
    relationship of addition between the two propositions


    2. Features
    of Connected Speech


    Citation form : /stænlɪz
    herəʊɪn ɔ:desi: ænd ə hɔ:l lɒt mɔ: bɪsaɪdz/


    Liaison: use of intrusive
    consonants between adjacent vowels:

    heroin:  /herəʊwɪn/        
    odyssey and: /ɔ:desi:jænd/


    Use of weak form for the
    unstressed grammatical word and.
    Could potentially become any of the following: i) /ənd/ - with vowel weakening of /æ/ to schwa;   ii) /ən/
    vowel weakening plus elision of /d/; or iii)
    [n̩] with elision both of the
    initial vowel and final consonant, leaving only a syllabic consonant.


    c) Catenation
    between syllable final consonants and syllable initial vowels : i) heroin
    /herəʊɪnɒdesi:/   ii)
    and a: /ən/ /ə/ or [ə]


    d) Gemination of the two adjacent /l/ phonemes in whole lot:: /hɔ:lɒt/


    Regressive assimilation of place
    in lot more: the alveolar /t/
    becomes a bilabial /p/ in front of the bilabial /m/: /lɒp mɔ:/

    resulting in:
    /stænlɪz herəʊɪnɒdesi:jənə hɔ:lɒp mɔ:

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